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# Balancing statistical and clinical significance in evaluating treatment effects

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Carrie Smithson    1 posts   Re: Topic 8 DQ 2            Not all EBP projects result in statistically significant results. In this discussion, I will define clinical significance, and explain the difference between clinical and statistical significance. “Statistical significance measures how likely that any apparent differences in outcome between treatment and control groups are real and not due by chance” (Leung, 2019, para. 2). There are common measures used with statistical significance such as p values and confidence intervals. The p values give the probability that any particular outcome would have arisen by chance with the assumption that the new and the control treatments are equally effective as the null hypothesis. Confidence intervals estimate the range which the real results would fall if the trial is conducted many times. “Clinical significance measures how large the differences in treatment effects are in clinical practice” (Leung, 2019, para. 3). Relative risk is independent of the prevalence of the disease and can be applied to populations with different prevalence of the disease. Relative risk is the ratio of the risks in the treatment group to the event rate in the control group. Statistical significance is all about numbers and data collection whereas clinical significance is how the EBP affects the clinical setting as a whole. I can use clinical significance to support positive outcomes in my project. Once the staff is taught how to teach the patients, and teaching is performed, patient outcomes start to progress. It is important to base education on what is specific to your unit so that the patients will receive the most optimal and pertinent information. When patients are educated more about what caused their diagnosis, such as tobacco use causing a stroke or heart attack, they can then take measures to prevent these diseases from occurring again. Patients use the information provided by the nurse staff to make informed decisions on their health care. When a patient makes a life changing change such as tobacco cessation, patient outcomes are more positive. This is my goal with my EBP project.  Reference  Leung, W.-C. (2019, March 1). Balancing statistical and clinical significance in  evaluating treatment effects. Retrieved from  https://pmj.bmj.com/content/77/905/201

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