Behavioral, Cognitive, and Interpersonal Change Strategies
Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references must come from Flamez, B. & Sheperis, C. J. (2015) and/or Sommers-Flanagan, J., & Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2007). I have also attached my discussion rubric so you can see how to make full points. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates separately with separate references for each response. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. I need this completed by 01/19/19 at 6pm.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.
Respond in one or more of the following ways:
· Ask a probing question.
· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.
· Offer and support an opinion.
· Validate an idea with your own experience.
· Make a suggestion.
· Expand on your colleague’s posting.
1. Classmate (H. Plo)
Children and adolescents frequently spend more time at school than at home. School is sometimes an oasis to an abused and/or neglected child. The environment of an individual influences student behavior and lends understanding to the interactions and relationships with students, school, family, and community (Hong, Cho, Allen-Meares, & Espelage, 2011). Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems theory explains how the many environments of a child has an effect on his or development (Paquette & Ryan, 2000). The interaction between a child’s biology, family, community, and societal environments guides his or her development (Paquette & Ryan, 2000). There are three types of school shooters: traumatized, psychotic, and psychopathic (Langman, 2009).
The culture I chose traumatized school shooters. Many studies have been conducted about this cultural group to identify the causes for why individuals attend school with the intention of killing as many people as possible. One study found commonalities among shooters such as depressed, white males that are loners and have characteristics of various personality disorders like paranoia, narcissistic, and antisocial (Langman, 2009). According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), family, school, and social dynamics also contribute to school shooter descriptors (Langman, 2009). The FBI also identified insufficient anger management, alienation, and lack of empathy as common (Langman, 2009).
Risk Factors for Violence and Aggression
There is not one set of criteria that can identify a school shooter. However, many school shooters have similar risk factors. The most conspicuous traits are discipline problems, feeling rejected and/or picked on, depressed with suicidal ideation, a history of aggression, and uncontrolled anger (Langman, 2009). The parents of traumatized shooters are usually divorced or separated and at least one parent has a criminal history and/or substance abuse problem (Langman, 2009). This type of shooter tends to have suffered physical and/or sexual abuse (Langman, 2009). For example, Evan Ramsey was 16 when he killed two people and injured two more in 1997 at his school in Bethel, Alaska (Langman, 2009). Ramsey’s father was incarcerated for 10 years after taking a newspaper editor hostage. His mother was an alcoholic living with abusive men. Ramsey was put into foster care for neglect. Within two years, he had been in 10 foster homes. Ramsey was physically and sexually abused in one of the foster homes (Langman, 2009). Having little to no support during development could have impacted the traumatized school shooter and increased the probability of school shooting.
Introduction of Protective Factors
Models of resilience and protective processes demonstrate protective factors could reduce the risk factors described above (Howard, Budge, & McKay, 2010). Studies have found that the amount of general and family support recognized by the victim exposed to violence helped to reduce the severity of PTSD symptoms (Howard, Budge, & McKay, 2010). For example, adolescents that perceived their families and/or school faculty as supportive helped to reduce the intensity of PTSD symptoms after violence such as bullying. Another possible protective factor is peer support. Studies have shown positive peer support can also reduce the effects of PTSD symptoms (Howard, Budge, & McKay, 2010). However, peer support must be positive in order for symptoms to be reduced (Howard, Budge, McKay, 2010). For example, if a student is abused at home and his or her friends are supportive by listening and encouraging that it is not his or her fault, then the victim is more likely to exhibit better grades and disposition due to positive support and decreased PTSD symptoms. On the other hand, if an abused student has friends that encourages skipping school and substance abuse, then the PTSD symptoms will not decrease. In this scenario, the abused student may eventually develop into a traumatized shooter.
Researchers have been attempting to understand why some students attend school to kill. They have identified three types of shooters: traumatized, psychotic, and psychopathic. Traumatized shooters are students that are often bullied, neglected, abused, ostracized, etc. with little to no support. Studies have shown traumatized students that have support from family and/or peers have less severe PTSD symptoms. It is important, as a counselor, to incorporate as many positive support resources for traumatized victims. The positive support could increase the victim’s resilience to overcome obstacles in a positive manner.
Hong, J. S., Cho, H., Allen-Meares, P., & Espelage, D. L. (2011). The social ecology of the Columbine High School shootings. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 861–868. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.12.005
Howard, K. A. S., Budge, S. L., & McKay, K. M. (2010). Youth exposed to violence: the role of protective factors. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(1), 63–79. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1002/jcop.20352
Langman, P. (2009). Rampage school shooters: A typology. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 79–86. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.avb.2008.10.003
Paquette, D., & Ryan, J., (2000). Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. Retrieved from http://www.floridahealth.gov/alternatesites/cms-kids/providers/early_steps/training/documents/bronfenbrenners_ecological.pdf
2. Classmate (K. Rog)
Main Discussion Post
To understand and connect with diverse ethnicities, it is imperative that counselors know how individual and societal biases develop as well as know the impact of systems and privilege and oppression on minorities (Hays, 2016). Addressing diversity and complexity helps explain how cultural influences affect who and how we are (Hays, 2016). Counselors who acknowledge that they have limited knowledge and understanding of a client’s cultural concerns may possibly encourage the establishment of a therapeutic alliance (Hays, 2016). Being transparent and truthful with the client from the very beginning of the therapeutic relationship can build rapport as well as foster respect.
The culture that I have chosen is African American. Being African American is much more complex and meaningful than a lifestyle of violence, materialistic accumulations, nice cars, and jewelry (Childs, 2014). African Americans have experienced an ongoing cycle of negativity for hundreds of years. First there was slavery, the civil rights movement, and discrimination. Now there are constant murders of unarmed black men, racism, and protests for equal rights, equal pay, and humanity.
Risk Factor Influences
Exposure to community violence is a vital concern for many African American youth (Busby, Lambert & Ialongo, 2013). African American youth who are exposed to community violence can result in a variety of symptoms and problems that detract from learning and lead to decreased academic success (Busby, et al., 2013). Associations between community violence, aggression, and violent behaviors are stronger than any other outcomes (Busby, et al., 2013). There is a stigma that exists in the African American culture that the only way to get ahead is to sell drugs or steal from others who have more than you do. Those who perpetuate this stigma often feel that this is the only way they can get ahead or have a better life. Seeing others succeed often makes people revert to what they have seen and what they know which is violence. Exposure to community violence is associated with several emotional and behavioral problems (Copeland-Linder, Lambert & Ialongo, 2010). The United States is becoming much more racially and ethnically diverse, so it is extremely important for young people to understand the significance of embracing differences (Childs, 2014). Difference is not just related to race but also mindset and thought process.
Adolescent perceptions of parental monitoring, control, and support have different influences on their lives including their decision-making skills (Chilenski, Ridenour, Bequette, & Caldwell, 2015). Parental monitoring for African American youth plays an essential role in influencing their free time, less disorderly conduct, less substance abuse, and maintaining good grades (Chilenski, et al., 2015). Parental support is also important in terms of planning and decision-making skills (Chilenski, et al., 2015). Parents who know where their children are and what they are doing can have a serious impact on adolescent development, especially in high risk communities (Chilenski, et al., 2015).
Another protective factor is to get the child or adolescent some additional community related social support such as a mentor. Community related support factors, specifically neighborhood support and mentor presence, can emanate as a protective factor (Cooper, Brown, Metzger, Clinton & Guthrie, 2013). There are often neighborhood churches, community centers, and after school programs that are close to the home that the youth can actively participate in. There are also sports and art programs that youth can participate in free of charge or with a sponsor. Additional positive role models have been proven to be supportive of positive youth development and preventive of problem behaviors (Chilenski, et al., 2015). Ensuring that African American children and adolescents are participating in healthy and positive activities outside of school and their home can greatly reduce the effects of violence and aggression that can occur compared to not having any outlets at all.
There are several influences that contribute to African Americans as well as other cultures that result in violent and aggressive behavior. However actively engaging the parents into the counseling process as well as encouraging social and community support can help reduce these risk factors. Culturally responsive practice starts with the counselor’s dedication to a lifelong approach of learning about cultural diversity (Hays, 2016). The result consists of having a greater appreciation of cultural experiences of others, a better understanding of diverse clients, and the capability to provide more efficient and culturally responsive counseling services (Hays, 2016).
Busby, D. R., Lambert, S. F., & Ialongo, N. S. (2013). Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, (2), 250. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgea&AN=edsgcl.321734117&site=eds-live&scope=site
Childs, D. J. (2014). “Let’s Talk About Race”: Exploring Racial Stereotypes Using Popular Culture in Social Studies Classrooms. Social Studies, 105(6), 291–300. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1080/00377996.2014.948607
Chilenski, S. M., Ridenour, T., Bequette, A. W., & Caldwell, L. L. (2015). Pathways of influence: how parental behaviors and free time experiences are associated with African American early adolescent development and academic achievement. Journal of Negro Education, (3), 401. Retrieved fromhttps://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgea&AN=edsgcl.453140370&site=eds-live&scope=site
Cooper, S. M., Brown, C., Metzger, I., Clinton, Y., & Guthrie, B. (2013). Racial discrimination and African American adolescents’ adjustment: gender variation in family and community social support, promotive and protective factors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, (1), 15. Retrieved fromhttps://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgea&AN=edsgcl.318750262&site=eds-live&scope=site
Copeland-Linder, N., Lambert, S. F., & Ialongo, N. S. (2010). Community violence, protective factors, and adolescent mental health: A profile analysis. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39(2), 176–186. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1080/15374410903532601
Hays, P. A. (2016). Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
3. Classmate (B. Hun)
Inner-City Urban Youth
Many inner-city urban youth have experienced violent acts and/or have been victims of violence and aggression. For example, more than 70% have urban youth witnessed a violent crime and more than 50% urban youth have been victims of violent crimes (Budge, Howard, & McKay, 2010). One way this culture may influence risk factors for violence and aggression as well as protective factors that may reduce or prevent violence and aggression will be explored in this discussion.
Culture’s Influence of Risk Factors
Urban areas have reportedly high crime rates including gang violence, robberies, and various acts of violence. For example, 50-96% of urban youth have experienced some form of community violence including 35% witnessing a stabbing, 33% witnessing a shooting, and 23% witnessing a dead body (Copeland-Linder, Lamber, & Lalongo, 2010). Witnessing these acts of violence both indirectly and directly can cause academic problems, substance use, suicidal behavior, and antisocial behavior within urban youth (Copeland-Linder, Lamber, & Lalongo, 2010). It can also cause mental health and health issues such as Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, anxiety, and depression (Budge, Howard, & McKay, 2010). With this being a prevalent occurrence in the community as well as a majority of what they experience in their neighborhood, it is more likely that youth who come from urban cities are to continue the statistics. For many, this could be what they believe is normal for everyday life.
Self-worth and parental monitoring and involvement are two protective factors that may reduce or prevent violence and aggression (Copeland-Linder, Lamber, & Lalongo, 2010). Self-worth increases resiliency within youth. With an increased sense of self and knowing that they can be capable of having a stable environment may be unsettling at first because it is not something they are used to; however, it can provide hope within youth and have them see there is much more to life. Higher levels of parental involvement are correlated with higher persistence which leads to higher grades as well as lower levels of distress (Budge, Howard, & McKay, 2010). It also shows youth that their parents care and are concerned about their well-being, which could increase the youth’s self-worth and self-esteem (Copeland-Linder, Lamber, & Lalongo, 2010).
I work with youth who are from urban cities and from neighborhoods where there are constant violent crimes and they all have grown up to participate in the crimes; therefore, they were placed on probation and removed from their hometowns to a treatment program to work through trauma and their substance and alcohol use. Most of my clients were recruited into gangs and many of them say they joined for a sense of family and for protection from the violent crimes they were witnessing. Having parental involvement and monitoring in their lives would greatly help with their self-esteem and higher grades in school due to attending school (Budge, Howard, & McKay, 2010).
Budge, S. L., Howard, K. A. S., & McKay, K. M. (2010). Youth exposed to violence: The role of protective factors. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(1), 63-79.
Copeland-Linder, N., Lamber, S. F., & Lalongo, N. S. (2010). Community violence, protective factors, and adolescent mental health: A profile analysis. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39(2), 176-186.
Bottom of Form
- Sommers-Flanagan, J., & Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2007). Tough kids, cool counseling: User-friendly approaches with challenging youth (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
o Chapter 5, “Behavioral, Cognitive, and Interpersonal Change Strategies”
- Copeland-Linder, N., Lamber, S. F., & Ialongo, N. S. (2010). Community violence, protective factors, and adolescent mental health: A profile analysis . Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39(2), 176–186.
© 2010 by TAYLOR & FRANCIS INFORMA UK LTD. Reprinted by permission of TAYLOR & FRANCIS INFORMA UK LTD. via the Copyright Clearance Center.
- Howard, K. A. S., Budge, S. L., & McKay, K. M. (2010). Youth exposed to violence: The role of protective factors . Journal of Community Psychology, 38(1), 63–79.
© 2010 by JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. Reprinted by permission of JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. via the Copyright Clearance Center.
- Liu, J. (2011). Early health risk factors for violence: Conceptualization, evidence, and implications . Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(1), 63–73.
© 2011 by ELSEVIER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JOURNALS. Reprinted by permission of ELSEVIER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JOURNALS via the Copyright Clearance Center.
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